Daily Archives: December 26, 2013

8 posts

Vol. 2, No. 3, Bounthanh Keoboualapha et al.

RESEARCH REPORT

Farmers’ Perceptions of Imperata cylindrica Infestation in a Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Area of Northern Lao PDR

Bounthanh Keoboualapha,* Suchint Simaraks,* Attachai Jintrawet,** Thaworn Onpraphai,** and Anan Polthanee*
* ບນຸ ທນັ ແກວ້ ບວົ ລະພາ; สุจินต์ สิมารักษ์; อนันต์ พลธานี, System Approaches in Agriculture Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, 123 Moo 16 Mittapap Rd., Nai-Muang, Muang District, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Corresponding author: Bounthanh Keoboualapha
** อรรถชัย จินตะเวช; ถาวร อ่อนประไพ, Crop Science and Natural Resources Department and Center for Agriculture Resource System Research, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, 239 Huay Kaew Road, Muang District, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

Abstract

This paper discusses farmers’ perceptions of Imperata infestation and its impact on agricultural land uses in a slash-and-burn area of Nambak District in Luang Prabang Province, northern Laos. Our study showed that slash-and-burn cultivation (SBC), which has been practiced for generations, remains the main agricultural land use system and provides an important source of food and income for farmers. Imperata, which first took root one and a half decades ago, is gradually proliferating, affecting the livelihoods of nearly 38% of households in the five target villages of this study. The positive cause and-effect relationship among such factors as accelerated land clearing, young fallows, declining soil fertility, and land shortages—suggested to be the main cause of the Imperata infestation—has reduced not only cultivable land but also its productivity. According to the majority of farmers, the most significant problems caused by Imperata infestation are reduced crop yields, increased weeding, and reduced crop growth. To overcome the problems, farmers employ a combination of strategies—the most common being weeding, fallowing the land, applying chemicals, and exchanging labor. However, the implementation of these strategies is encumbered by many constraints, primarily lack of labor and capital, rice insufficiency, and limited land. Given the constraints and the available technologies, it will be very difficult for farmers in the study area to adopt a more permanent, diversified, and productive agricultural system, which is a high priority of government development policy in the uplands. To meet this challenge, the thrust of research and development communities working in the uplands should be on more systematic and integrated interventions that combine technological, social, economic, and political resolutions based on knowledge of the causes of Imperata infestation, the problems it creates, management strategies to cope with the infestation, and the specific constraints perceived by farmers.

Keywords:
slash-and-burn cultivation, Imperata infestation, agricultural land uses

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Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 2013, pp. 583–598
©Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University

Vol. 2, No. 3, Atsushi Kobayashi

The Role of Singapore in the Growth of Intra-Southeast Asian Trade, c.1820s–1852

Atsushi Kobayashi*
*小林篤史, Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University, 46 Shimoadchicho, Yoshida Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan

Abstract
This paper argues that the expansion of Southeast Asian trade in the first half of the nineteenth century was based partly on the growth of intra-regional trade. Singapore played a significant role as a British free port in the connection between Western long-distance trade and intra-regional trade. According to my estimates, intra-regional trade centered on the British and Dutch colonies grew from the 1820s to 1852, with the focus shifting from Java to Singapore. As background to this growth, attention is drawn to the relaxation of Dutch protectionist tariffs imposed on British cotton goods imported via Singapore. Prompted by British diplomatic protests, tariff levels were reduced, and Singapore increased its exports of European cotton goods across the region. The importance of the distribution system for regional products in the rise of trade in Singapore is also discussed. As Southeast Asian products exported to the Asian market were traded through Singapore, local merchants such as the Chinese and Bugis often conducted transactions of those regional products in exchange for European cotton goods. Thus, the distribution system for regional products facilitated the influx of European cotton goods into the region via Singapore.

Keywords:
Southeast Asian trade, intra-regional trade, Singapore, European cotton goods, Southeast Asian products, Asian merchants

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Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 2013, pp. 443–474
©Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University

Vol. 2, No. 3, Atsushi Ota

Tropical Products Out, British Cotton In: Trade in the Dutch Outer Islands Ports, 1846–69

Atsushi Ota*
* 太田 淳, Graduate School of Letters, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8522, Japan

Abstract
This paper discusses the trade structure in the Dutch Outer Islands ports, in which the Dutch checked the volume and value of traded items in order to levy customs duty and created trade statistics in the Indonesian Archipelago outside Java and Madura. Although these ports do not include those in independent ports such as those in Aceh and Bali, the statistics contain precious information on the entire imports and exports of each port. Analyzing this set of statistics, this paper argues that the Dutch Outer Islands ports continued to export China-bound (partly Southeast Asia-bound) tropical products, such as pepper, forest products, and other kinds of local products, as well as colonial products such as coffee. On the other hand, these ports imported increasing amounts of British cotton goods after the Anglo-Dutch tariff arrangement in the 1840s. In this way the existing China-oriented trade and the new colonial trade, linked to Western capitalism, interacted and combined with each other. This transborder network beyond the Dutch sphere of influence was a source of the strength that the regions around these ports maintained, in the form of a steady development of trade.

Keywords:
trade structure, Dutch Outer Islands, China-oriented trade, non-colonial products

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Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 2013, pp. 499–526
©Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University

Vol. 2, No. 3, Ryuto Shimada

The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

Ryuto Shimada*
* 島田竜登, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1
Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

Abstract

This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together with the scattered data available on the first half of the nineteenth century. This paper suggests, first, that while it is known that Java’s economic relations with the outside world were heavily oriented toward trade with the Netherlands, this trend began in the late eighteenth century rather than with the introduction of the Cultivation System in 1830. Second, Java’s coastal trade also began to develop in the late eighteenth century. This trade was conducted by European traders and Asian indigenous traders, including overseas Chinese traders settled in Java. Third, trade with the Outer Islands declined in the late eighteenth century but resumed its expansion in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Fourth, intra-Asian trade with the region outside insular Southeast Asia declined in the long run, along with the decline and bankruptcy of the VOC, which had successfully engaged in this branch of intra-Asian trade since the seventeenth century.

Keywords:
Java, Batavia, Dutch East India Company, VOC, Euro-Asian trade, intra-Asian trade

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Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 2013, pp. 475–497
©Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University

 

Vol. 2, No. 3 of Southeast Asian Studies

Published in December, 2013

CONTENTS

Special Focus
Reconstructing Intra-Southeast Asian Trade, c.1780–1870:Evidence of Regional Integration under the Regime of Colonial Free Trade
Guest Editor: Kaoru SUGIHARA
Introduction ・・・ Kaoru SUGIHARA
Tomotaka KAWAMURA
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The Role of Singapore in the Growth of Intra-Southeast Asian Trade, c.1820s–1852 ・・・ Atsushi KOBAYASHI pdficon_large
The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century ・・・ Ryuto SHIMADA pdficon_large
Tropical Products Out, British Cotton In: Trade in the Dutch Outer Islands Ports, 1846–69 ・・・ Atsushi OTA pdficon_large
Articles
Tracing Hồ Chí Minh’s Sojourn in Siam ・・・ Thanyathip Sripana pdficon_large
Visualizing the Evolution of the Sukhothai Buddha ・・・ Sawitree Wisetchat pdficon_large
Research Report
Farmers’ Perceptions of Imperata cylindrica Infestation Suchint SIMARAKS in a Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Area of Northern Lao PDR ・・・ Bounthanh KEOBOUALAPHA
Suchint SIMARAKS
Attachai JINTRAWET
Thaworn ONPRAPHAI
Anan POLTHANEE
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Book Reviews
Yoshihiro Nakanishi.
Strong Soldiers, Failed Revolution: The State and Military in Burma, 1962–88.
Singapore and Kyoto: NUS Press in association with Kyoto University Press, 2013, xxi+358p.
・・・ Robert H. TAYLORR pdficon_large
Robbie Peters.
Surabaya, 1945–2010: Neighbourhood, State and Economy in Indonesia’s City of Struggle.
Singapore: NUS Press, 2013, 272p.
・・・ Abidin KUSNO pdficon_large
Peter Post, William H. Frederick, Iris Heidebrink, and Shigeru Sato, eds.
The Encyclopedia of Indonesia in the Pacific War: In Cooperation with the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation.
Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2010, xxix+684p.
・・・ YAMAMOTO Nobuto pdficon_large
Lam Peng Er, ed.
Japan’s Relations with Southeast Asia:The Fukuda Doctrine and Beyond. London and New York: Routledge, 2013, xvii+203p.
・・・ LEE Poh Ping pdficon_large
Jessica Harriden.
The Authority of Influence: Women and Power in Burmese History.
Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2012, xiii+370p.
・・・ Ashley WRIGHT pdficon_large
Sverre Molland.
The Perfect Business? Anti-trafficking and the Sex Trade along the Mekong.
Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2012, viii+276p.
Susan Kneebone and Julie Debeljak.
Transnational Crime and Human Rights: Responses to Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion.
Oxon: Routledge, 2012, xiii+276p.
・・・ Kai CHEN pdficon_large
Wendy Mee and Joel S. Kahn, eds.
Questioning Modernity in Indonesia and Malaysia. Singapore and Kyoto:NUS Press in association with Kyoto University Press, 2012, vi+257p.
・・・ Jennifer Yang Hui pdficon_large
Cherian George.
Freedom from the Press: Journalism and State Power in Singapore.
Singapore: NUS Press, 2012, xiii+272p.
・・・ Joanne LEOW pdficon_large
Patrick Jory, ed.
Ghosts of the Past in Southern Thailand: Essays on the History and Historiography of Patani.

Singapore: NUS Press, 2013, xxix+336p.
・・・ Piyada Chonlaworn pdficon_large
Jianxiong Ma.
The Lahu Minority in Southwest China: A Response to Ethnic Marginalization on the Frontier.
Oxon: Routledge, 2013, xvii+254p.
・・・ HORIE Mio pdficon_large

Vol. 2, No. 3, Kaoru Sugihara and Tomotaka Kawamura

SPECIAL FOCUS

Introduction:
Reconstructing Intra-Southeast Asian Trade, c.1780–1870: Evidence of Regional Integration under the Regime of Colonial Free Trade

Kaoru Sugihara* and Tomotaka Kawamura**
* 杉原 薫, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-8677, Japan
Corresponding author
** 川村朋貴, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

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Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 2013, pp. 437–441
©Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University

Vol. 2, No. 3, Sawitree Wisetchat

Visualizing the Evolution of the Sukhothai Buddha

Sawitree Wisetchat*
* สาวิตรี วิเศษชาติ, The Glasgow School of Art: Digital Design Studio, 167 Renfrew St, Glasgow G3 6RQ, UK

Abstract
As Buddhism spread from India to cover much of Asia, sculptures depicting the Buddha varied regionally, reflecting both the original Indian iconography and local ethnic and cultural influences. This study considers how statues of the Buddha evolved in Thailand, focusing on the Sukhothai period (1238–1438 CE), during which a distinctly Thai style developed; this style is still characteristic of Thailand today. The Sukhothai style primarily reflects features of the Pala, Sri Lankan, Pagan, and Lan Na styles, yet contains new stylistic innovations and a refinement over the four successive schools that were subsequently lost in later Thai Buddhist styles. To analyze this evolution, first a conventional “visual vocabulary” approach is used, wherein 12 styles (precursors, contemporaries, and successors of the Sukhothai style) are described and summarized in a style matrix that highlights commonalities and differences. Then a novel application of digital “blend-shape animation” is adopted to assist in the visualization of differing styles and to better illustrate style evolution. Rather than comparing styles by shifting attention between sample images, the viewer can now appreciate style differences by watching one style metamorphose into another. Common stylistic features remain relatively unchanged and visually ignored, while differing features draw attention. While applied here to the study of Buddhist sculptures, this technique has other potential applications to art history, architecture, and graphic design generally.

Keywords:
Southeast Asia, Southeast Asian art, Sukhothai Buddha, sculptural style, visual vocabulary, style analysis, digital animation, blend shapes

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Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 2013, pp. 559–582
©Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University

Vol. 2, No. 3, Thanyathip Sripana

Tracing Hồ Chí Minh’s Sojourn in Siam

Thanyathip Sripana*
* ธัญญาทิพย์ ศรีพนา, Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan,
Bangkok 10800, Thailand

Abstract
Hồ Chí Minh, the Vietnamese revolutionary leader who sacrificed his life for his country’s independence, was in Siam from 1928–29 and briefly from March–April 1930. Siam was well placed to serve as an anti-colonial base for the Vietnamese fighting for independence in the west of central Vietnam, especially after the repression of the Chinese communists in Guangdong by Chiang Kai Shek in 1927. Northern Siam is connected to central Vietnam by land via Laos, while southern China is also accessible from Bangkok by sea routes.
Hồ Chí Minh arrived in Bangkok in 1928. He went to Ban Dong in Phichit and then to Udon Thani, Nong Khai, Sakon Nakhon, and Nakhon Phanom in the northeast of Siam. The paper studies when and how Hồ Chí Minh arrived in Siam; his mission there; the places he visited; and his activities during his sojourn. We also enquire how Hồ Chí Minh carried out his mission: who accompanied him in Siam; what pseudonyms he and his collaborators used; and what strategies he used to elude arrest by local authorities.
It cannot be denied that the instruction Hồ Chí Minh imparted to his compatriots during his stay contributed tremendously to the struggle for Vietnamese independence. By the end of the 1920s and the beginning of the 1930s, he had accomplished his task of reorganizing and strengthening the network, and educating the Vietnamese anticolonial and revolutionary movement in Siam. In addition, he contributed to the founding of the communist party in the region, which was the task assigned to him by the Comintern.
Nonetheless, we should recognize that his mission in Siam was facilitated and supported by Đặng Thúc Hứa, who, prior to Hồ’s arrival, had gathered the Vietnamese into communities and set up several bases for long-term anti-colonial movements with the help of his compatriots.
Hồ Chí Minh’s presence in Siam has been commemorated by the Thai and Vietnamese through the Thai-Vietnamese Friendship Village and the memorial houses built after 2000 in Nakhon Phanom and Udon Thani in northeastern Thailand. These memorials have become a symbol of the good relationship between Thailand and Vietnam.

Keywords:
Hồ Chí Minh in Siam, Hồ Chí Minh’s sojourn in Siam, Hồ Chí Minh in Nakhon Phanom, Hồ Chí Minh’s pseudonym in Siam, Đặng Thúc Hứa, Đặng Quỳnh Anh, Việt Kiều in Thailand, Hồ Chí Minh’s memorial houses in Thailand, Vietnamese anti-colonial movement in Siam

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Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 2013, pp. 527–558
©Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University